The story of Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji

Best understood as a story of Rajput valour, the poem Padmavat, begins with a fanciful description of the kingdom of Simhala-dvipa, where a princess named Padmani lived, who was believed to be of unparalleled beauty. She was, according to the poet, a “perfect woman”. Padmini had a talking parrot, Hira-mani who, on being berated by the king of Simhala-dvipa, flew away to Chittor and informed King Ratansen of the beauty of Padmini. Being completely mesmerised by Hira-mani’s account of Padmini, the king longed to marry the princess and managed to do so after a long series of dramatic battles and adventurous trials Back in the kingdom of Chittor, where Ratansen lived with Padmini after their marriage, a sorcerer named Raghav Chaitanya lived. Being banished by Ratansen for invoking dark spirits in the court, he travelled to Delhi which was under the rule of the Khiljis. He told Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Padmini’s beauty, arousing in him the strongest passion to acquire her. The Sultan invaded Chittor with the intention of obtaining Padmini. However, the valiant Rajput Queen would rather kill herself than be taken by the Sultan of Delhi. She along with other Rajput women committed jauhar (a custom largely practised by Hindu women in north India of mass self-immolation to avoid capture by invaders). The fact that Khilji did indeed invade Chittor is not debatable. Contemporary historical accounts give details of the act. The earliest of these sources is the written account of Amir Khusrau, who had accompanied Khilji in his quest. However, he mentions nothing about a jauhar being held. The Khiljis are said to have been the first among the Delhi Sultanate rulers to have walked the path of territorial expansion. As per the accounts of historian Satish Chandra, the territorial expansion of the Khilji sultans took place in phases wherein they first captured Gujrat, Rajasthan and Malwa, before moving towards Deccan and Maharashtra. The invasion of Chittor needs to be understood as part of the Sultan’s political strategy to bring more territories under his control. The story of ‘Padmavat’ written almost 200 years after the actual invasion, can best be understood as a fictionalised account of history. As written by historians Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, “Such stories cast the fierce military struggles of Alauddin’s era in an overly romanticised light and should not be taken as historical truth.”

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Ranbir Singh as Alaudin Khilji

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Sultan Ala-ud-Din Khilji (Ghilzai) was an Afghan Emperor in Delhi, India.

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Sultan Allauddin Khilji

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Alauddin Khilji Of The Khilji Dynasty Captures Chittorgarh On 26th August

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(Alauddin Khilji looking at Rani Padmavati’s reflection in a mirror).

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The tomb of Alauddin Khilji in Qutb Complex, New Delhi

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Alauddin Khalji Empire

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Rawal Ratan Singh with Wife Rani Padmini

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Rawal Ratan Singh Husband of Rani Padmavati

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Rawal Ratan Singh

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If Alauddin Khilji had failed to stop the Mongol Invasion of India, the Mongols would have engaged in a large scale slaughter of the Hindus

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Rani-padmavati

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Deepaka as Rani-padmavati

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The Palace of Rani Padmini. Chittor,Rajasthan.

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When the news of the wonderful beauty of queen Padmavati reached Alauddin Khilji, so he became crazy about her beauty. He ordered his army to attack Chittor

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An 18th century painting of Rani Padmini.

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Madrasa of Alauddin Khilji

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An Overviwq of The Largest Fort In India The Chittorgarh Fort in Rajhistan

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Local and Tour Guides Wait for Tourists outside The Rani Padmavati Mahal

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Visitor Observe The Room where Legend Says Allaudin Saw Padmavati in a Mirror

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The Darbar of Rattan Singh

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The legend of Queen Padmavati is a tale of lust and war, which unfortunately ended in tragedy.

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War ensued and Chittorgarh fell. It soon became clear that the Sultan’s victory was inevitable. With their men fighting the enemy, the women of the palace chose to sacrifice their lives over a life of humiliation and ill-treatment at the hands of the Sultan. A huge pyre was lit and the queen and other ladies dressed up in their best clothes. They sang religious songs and prepared themselves to endure the pain as the flames engulfed their bodies. Rani Padmavati jumped first and the rest of the women followed.

Should Computer Science be a mandatory part of a high school curriculum? The answer depends on the time horizon, and also on how one defines “computer science.” The question is moot in the short-term. In the long run, computational thinking and digital literacy will be mandatory, although perhaps integrated in other fields or introduced earlier, before high school.
In the short run: schools would need to offer computer science courses before requiring students study it.
Before answering this question, one must first ask whether schools can actually teach computer science. Today, most high schools don’t teach computer science, they don’t have a computer science teacher, so mandating that every student learn a field that isn’t even offered is silly. Fortunately, schools throughout the U.S. are now taking steps to offer computer science. And 56% of teachers believe computer science should be mandatory for all students [1]. And with Code.orgtraining tens of thousands of new C.S. teachers per year, making computer science mandatory may be possible in less than a decade.
In the long-run: parts of computer science (computational thinking and digital literacy) will be mandatory learning, starting in grades K-8.
Computational thinking – which is the logic, algorithmic thinking, and problem-solving aspects of computer science – provides an analytical backbone that is useful for every single student, in any career. Schools teach math to students regardless of whether they want to become mathematicians, because it is foundational. The same is true of computer science. Consider, at the university level, computer science satisfies graduation requirements for 95% of B.S. degrees [2].
Digital literacy – understanding things like what is the “cloud,” what are “cookies,” or how does “encryption” work – these are useful for every student, regardless of whether they want to become a lawyer, a doctor, or a coder. They are just as foundational as learning about photosynthesis, the digestive system, or other topics one learns in high school science classes.
The coding aspects of computer science – learning the syntax of a specific programming language such as C++, Java, or Python – the syntactical expertise in one language is least likely to stand the true test of time. The programming language you learn in high school is unlikely to be popular 10 years later, and it’s hard to argue that everystudent must be required to learn any single language. However, teaching a coding language is often necessary for teaching computational thinking or algorithm design, and so it’s a key part of most C.S. education.
The U.S. education system is rapidly changing to broaden access to C.S., and even to require it in many regions.
In many U.S. states (e.g. Arkansas, Virginia, Indiana), computational thinking and digital literacy have already been integrated into the mandatory standards of learning for K-8 students. In these states, the most important foundational aspects of this field will be taught to every student before they even enter high school. When students receive that background in primary school, they can decide for themselves whether they want to take a deeper programming course in high school.
At Code.org, we don’t advocate for making computer science mandatory in high school. We advocate for integrating aspects of it in primary school (grades K-8). But we also support the ambitious school districts (such as Chicago, and Oakland) that have already decided to make it a mandatory high school course.