Two Sikhs of Goujranwala District Photographed 1860, Punjab.
Martyrdom of Sikhs at Lahore – 1753
Sikh History : Sikh freeing Indian women enslaved by Ahmed Shah Abdali – 1762
Martyrdom of Baba Banda Singh Bahadhur – 19 June 1716
Ranjit Singh’s tomb, unknown photographer, Lahore, 1860-1870.
Sikh Era gun outside Lahore Museum
Inscription on Sikh Gun
The Sikh Empire – Coins
Sikh refugees from Lahore waiting for their family elders in 1947
Sikh from Lahore
The image of Samadhi above is the mausoleum of the great Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is located near the Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan. Construction was started by his son, Kharak Singh on the spot where he wa scremated and was completed by his younger son, Dillip Singh in 1848. The tomb exmeplifies Sikh archiecture, it has gilded fluted domes and cupolas and an ornate blustrade around the top. Ranjit Singh’s ashes are contained in a marble urn in the shape of a lotus, sheltered under a marble pavilion inlaid with petra dura, in the centre of the tomb.
Fresco is in Kharak Singh’s haveli within the Lahore Fort
The eastern facade of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Samadhi. It has frescoes of guardian figures that Dr Nadhra Shahbaz Naeem Khan found after scraping thick layers of whitewash. They have since been covered with more layers and lost again
Sikh Pilgrimage into Lahore
The Battle For Lahore And Amritsar
Exclusive excerpts from ‘The Resourceful Fakirs: Three Muslim Brothers at the Sikh Court of Lahore.
After all, Sikh rule can never be forgotten by Punjab.
Sikh pilgrims take part in a religious procession to mark the birth anniversary of Guru Nanak
“Guru Hargobind – a painting from the Lahore Museum
Guru Arjan – a painting from the Lahore Museum
It is called Dera Sahib. For the Sikhs, it is a very dear sacred place. They used to visit it in thousands every day. Every year a very big gathering, called Jor Mela, was held there on the day on which the Guru left for his Eternal Home or God’s presence. But now the Sikhs are not free to visit that most sacred and dear place of theirs. How sad! May God so arrange things that the Sikhs may be free to visit their sacred places now in Pakistan! All Sikhs make this prayer everyday.
Gurudwara Lal Khoi, Mochi Darwaza, Lahore
Mani Singh, priest of the Harmandir Sahib, is believed to have been executed by the Lahore governor close to the place where the Gurdwara Shaheed Ganj stands.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’, probably Lahore, India, about 1835-40.
Old City Lahore (Wood Map Of Sikh Era
Lahore Sikh Darbar (Maharaja Ranjit Singh Period) (From Original Picture)
Gurudwara Chhevin Patshahi, Mozang Lahore
Gurudwara Chhevin Patshahi,
Sikh pilgrims gather at the mausoleum of Maharaja Ranjit Singh during commemorations for his 176th death anniversary in the eastern city of Lahore on June 29, 2015. Hundreds of Sikh pilgrims arrived in Pakistan to attend a ceremony marking the 176th death anniversary of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh empire. AFP PHOTO/ Arif ALI
In 1737 Bhai Mani Singh took permission from the muslim governor of Lahore for the Sikhs to celebrate Diwali at the Golden Temple on the payment of Rs. 5,000 as tax, a practice which had been banned. Not enough people attended Diwali that year because they were afraid of the muslim authorities and as a result not enough money was collected. The muslim authorities arrested Bhai Mani Singh and publicly executed him in Lahore.
id=”id_5a3a3423c04034736843478″ class=”text_exposed_root”>Bhai Mani Singh (1670 to 1737)
Bhai Mani Singh was a great Sikh scholar and martyr who was the scribe of the final version of the Guru Granth Sahib under the guidance of Guru Gobind Singh and who compiled the Dasam Granth following the death of Guru Gobind Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was born to Jat parents at the village of Sunam in 1670. He was the younger brother of Bhai Dyala who was martyred along…
Should Computer Science be a mandatory part of a high school curriculum? The answer depends on the time horizon, and also on how one defines “computer science.” The question is moot in the short-term. In the long run, computational thinking and digital literacy will be mandatory, although perhaps integrated in other fields or introduced earlier, before high school.
In the short run: schools would need to offer computer science courses before requiring students study it.
Before answering this question, one must first ask whether schools can actually teach computer science. Today, most high schools don’t teach computer science, they don’t have a computer science teacher, so mandating that every student learn a field that isn’t even offered is silly. Fortunately, schools throughout the U.S. are now taking steps to offer computer science. And 56% of teachers believe computer science should be mandatory for all students . And with Code.orgtraining tens of thousands of new C.S. teachers per year, making computer science mandatory may be possible in less than a decade.
In the long-run: parts of computer science (computational thinking and digital literacy) will be mandatory learning, starting in grades K-8.
Computational thinking – which is the logic, algorithmic thinking, and problem-solving aspects of computer science – provides an analytical backbone that is useful for every single student, in any career. Schools teach math to students regardless of whether they want to become mathematicians, because it is foundational. The same is true of computer science. Consider, at the university level, computer science satisfies graduation requirements for 95% of B.S. degrees .
Digital literacy – understanding things like what is the “cloud,” what are “cookies,” or how does “encryption” work – these are useful for every student, regardless of whether they want to become a lawyer, a doctor, or a coder. They are just as foundational as learning about photosynthesis, the digestive system, or other topics one learns in high school science classes.
The coding aspects of computer science – learning the syntax of a specific programming language such as C++, Java, or Python – the syntactical expertise in one language is least likely to stand the true test of time. The programming language you learn in high school is unlikely to be popular 10 years later, and it’s hard to argue that everystudent must be required to learn any single language. However, teaching a coding language is often necessary for teaching computational thinking or algorithm design, and so it’s a key part of most C.S. education.
The U.S. education system is rapidly changing to broaden access to C.S., and even to require it in many regions.
In many U.S. states (e.g. Arkansas, Virginia, Indiana), computational thinking and digital literacy have already been integrated into the mandatory standards of learning for K-8 students. In these states, the most important foundational aspects of this field will be taught to every student before they even enter high school. When students receive that background in primary school, they can decide for themselves whether they want to take a deeper programming course in high school.
At Code.org, we don’t advocate for making computer science mandatory in high school. We advocate for integrating aspects of it in primary school (grades K-8). But we also support the ambitious school districts (such as Chicago, and Oakland) that have already decided to make it a mandatory high school course.